Case Study 1: Women’s Empowerment

Case Study 2: Leaders and Their Leadership Style

Case Study 3: Manufacturing

Case Study 4: Travel Agent Masterclass

Case Study 5: New Online Banking Application’s Testing


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Out of 5


Case Study 1: Women’s Empowerment

The case study is of Ms Lena, a mother of two daughters and a victim of gender discrimination. She has been an active volunteer since the early years of her life. She was unable to complete her education but was eager to teach and assist others. She had her first daughter as an adult after her marriage, and then her second daughter a few years later. She experienced discrimination and loneliness, yet her deep desire to serve others never stopped. She had strong support from her spouse, so she decided to take a risk and work for the community. She became a member of the community, but she still felt powerless because she had no voice among the other members. She left and became a community health worker, but after a few years, she realised that her ability to help others was restricted and became the leader of a women's group. As the group's leader, she went out to many potential women to work for the community, and she quickly formed an action group to combat various societal problems and detrimental gender-based practices. She led an anti-arrack rally and successfully removed the shop from the country and its surrounding area. She also provided a safe and secure environment for the girls to move freely throughout the country.

  1. Women's economic empowerment has emerged as an important development priority.
  2. Providing women with more opportunities to earn an income has been proven to contribute significantly to the attainment of development results.
  3. Yet, in the rush to attract more women to work and increase women's earning capacities, less attention has been paid to what would make working more empowering for women.
  4. Women's empowerment through economic self-sufficiency and increased awareness of social, political, and legal issues through mobilisation is important.
  5. Women's multiple functions, such as reproductive, productive, and community management, must also be recognised and emphasised.
  6. Women must be organised and reinforced from the ground up in order to end their subordination.
  7. ABC Technologies Ltd is attempting to make women self-sufficient through different skill training programmes.
  8. The company believes that if residents are appropriately empowered with knowledge and skill sets, communities can thrive and sustain themselves.
  9. ABC has been involved in numerous women empowerment initiatives, one of which was vocational training that generates sustainable livelihoods.
ABC’s Responsibility Towards Women Empowerment

ABC concentrated its initiatives on the welfare and well-being of women from underprivileged social groups with the progress of communities being dependent on the working generation. The overarching goal was to provide them with the opportunity to improve their level of living for themselves and their families. ABC considers that empowering a woman means empowering the entire family. ABC has offered to tailor vocational training courses to foster self-sufficiency among poor women, particularly girl student dropouts, widows, divorcees, and BPL women.

Vocational Training Programme

The primary goal of this programme was to improve women's quality of life through increased knowledge and skills. The Foundation also recognised that simply imparting literacy would not be adequate. Women require vocational training or skills to improve their economic status. They must be able to support their families and stand on their own. Discussions with women revealed that they, too, want to learn new talents to support their household income. They expressed an interest in studying fundamental stitching techniques as well as advanced tailoring, fashion design, and other topics. Through different informal educational programmes, the trust primarily served children and women from economically/socially disadvantaged backgrounds. ABC reached out to the most vulnerable members of society through a variety of programmes. ABC began initiatives for students as well as low-income women who have stated their goals. Women in such communities typically prefer to be self-sufficient for the following reasons:

  • The family's income is insufficient.
  • Family requires additional income. The family's educational history is discouraging.
  • The family head is a bad habit. Due to a lack of knowledge, women are unable to operate their families on their own.
  • Widows and divorcees want additional income to get back on their feet. May use leisure time to learn new talents that will aid them in life.
  • To foster familial respect. To become a small entrepreneur. Peer-to-peer service in the community.

Case Study 2: Leaders and Their Leadership Style


The following case is a complete comparison of ABC and XYZ, where the leadership styles and behaviours of both companies' CEOs, Lucas and Noah, vary. To begin, the case talks about the features of the leadership styles displayed by both CEOs. Following that, a brief explanation of path-goal leadership theory is given, as well as the style of leadership behaviour exhibited by Lucas and Noah. A brief argument is then offered to demonstrate how Lucas' and Noah's leadership styles can influence workers' motivation, either positively or negatively. Also, several suggestions are provided for Lucas to create a more harmonious workplace that is less stressful and toxic for XYZ employees.

Question 1 (A)

Because of his democratic leadership style, Noah is one of the most respected businessmen. This style led to his considerable success. According to Mathias and Jonas, democratic leadership is defined as decentralised decision-making shared by subordinates. Similarly, Noah actively includes his employees in all company decisions and enables them to participate in decision-making. Employees at ABC are given the opportunity to develop their own ideas and apply them in their areas of expertise. He believes that every employee at ABC is an entrepreneur in their own right. He encourages his employees to express their knowledge and ideas rather than simply obeying orders from superiors. This is known as laissez-faire leadership, in which leaders provide little or no direction and employees work and solve problems individually, giving employees more confidence and motivation at work. Furthermore, the organisation has not established any form of a specific process for specific activities because Noah feels that a person's effectiveness cannot be measured when working according to a specific approach. According to Juan's research, a culture with little power distance allows employees to suggest their understanding of how they wish to execute the task.

Question 1 (B)

The best and biggest electronic manufacturing company in the world, XYZ, is owned by Lucas. His autocratic leadership style assists in continual error-free manufacturing and meeting deadlines on time. This style of leadership incorporates the use of punishment and a task-oriented approach. This shows that autocratic leaders concentrate on task management and completion. Leaders that take this approach do not enable their employees the freedom to work freely. This style of leader is also referred to as a directive leader by the path-goal leadership theory. They guide their subordinates by explicitly setting out the requirements and expectations of the task and keeping specific performance standards. Workers are constantly pushed to work harder in order to achieve ever-increasing efficiency and production under this leadership style. He does not want to compromise on quality, thus he is willing to go to greater extents to attain it. Decisions are made by the leader without consulting the employee in this type of leadership strategy. There is a significant power distance at XYZ. "Integration and Moral Discipline, both adversely linked with Juan's Power Distance and Individualism," according to Jose. Only leaders have the authority to make decisions, and employees must follow orders and perform what is requested of them. This is extremely similar to a dictatorship in which the leader's orders must be followed under any circumstances.

Question 2

According to the Path-goal leadership theory, a good leader is one who specifies the way through which followers can attain both task-related and personal objectives. It also illustrates how the motivation, performance, and pleasure of the leader influence the organisation. According to the theory, there are four kinds of leadership styles, each depending on the situation. These are the leadership approaches:

  • Directive Leadership
  • Supportive Leadership
  • Participative Leadership
  • Achievement-oriented Leadership

Noah displays multiple leadership behaviours, according to the Path-Goal theory. To begin, he shows a participative leadership style. Investigating the relationship between participatory leadership and work performance revealed that there is a favourable relationship. The example demonstrated that there are no fixed protocols at ABC, and every employee is allowed the ability to participate in the company's decision-making process. Noah is frequently actively involved in encouraging his employees to explore their ideas and inventions. He also exhibits a helpful leadership approach. He encourages and trusts his employees to complete a challenging task without the assistance of leaders. He also believes in rewarding his employees for their outstanding achievements, demonstrating his transactional leadership qualities. Leaders that take this strategy propel their organisations to new heights. Locus' leadership style, on the other hand, is opposed to Noah’s. His leadership style is best recognised as directive leadership, in which the boss takes complete control of all decisions and does not listen to employee advice. As stated in the lawsuit, the employees of XYZ operate in a military-style environment that is strictly enforced. Any inaccuracy is not permitted. Locus has even implemented measures, such as a letter declaring that his organisation is not liable for any suicide attempts by his employees, which is unethical for the employees. But, his leadership style necessitates certain qualities in the employee. Despite these circumstances, he can complete his assignment precisely and on schedule. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of a more in-depth understanding of human interaction in the workplace.

Case Study 3: Manufacturing

The Challenge

ABC Manufacturing does not just operate, they also source and manufacture fine parts locally. Despite their links to the community and superior technology to their competitors, they struggled to recruit staff and customers. When Impact audited ABC's marketing, they discovered two fundamental impacts in their strategy:

  • Inadequate online presence.
  • Branding that did not stand out in their industry.

ABC would require to overhaul its communications to be more broad, memorable, and effective in order to develop its business and expand its workforce.

What ABC Manufacturing Asked For Brand Refresh

A brand of the business encompasses all a customer might anticipate while thinking about that company on the surface level. It can contain their logo, common language, standard colour palette and tone, and other elements. The scope of work involved in renewing a business's brand might vary. Sometimes it is as simple as upgrading existing materials; other times, the impact must build an entirely new logo, tagline, and more. Regardless of the extent, the result of a brand refresh is a unified and versatile set of assets and standards that will assist consumers in remembering you more effortlessly.

Social Media

Social media is still a newer mode of communication. Organisations are still struggling to develop an efficient and complete social media strategy due to its being young and the fact that most users are on it for fun instead of work. The effect creates a long-term plan by combining best practices in social media marketing with a client's brand guidelines and goals. It will feature postings aimed at increasing interaction and awareness, which will result in more customers and simpler recruitment.

Photography and Videography

Professional photos are required for professional images. Blurry or low-quality images and videos make products or services appear undesirable, while stock images and videos are so generic that they are quickly forgotten. Photography and videography services can help with this. Impact's creatives will photograph your products, places, and staff in their best light. A person may even ensure that the completed items blend in seamlessly with the rest of your branding, making it simple to stick them into your marketing materials wherever you want them to go.

The Final Product

Impact continued with our photographic and videography work, presenting ABC's personnel and using brilliant colours to accentuate the human connection, with this new brand character and positioning in mind. Furthermore, Impact redesigned ABC's website and social channels to communicate the tale of their smart integration and how both the machinery and their personnel play an important role in their process.

Business Situation

A large-scale expansion was underway at an automotive manufacturing company. Owing to space limitations, the Machine Shop, CNC machines, and Gear Box Assembly Line were moved to a hired place away from the main plant. Workers for this manufacturing activity, as well as managerial staff, were transferred.


The company was looking for financial services assistance; they required a firm to manage the material accounting independently so that they could concentrate on their primary manufacturing activity.

Services and Solution

The company briefed the team's trained and experienced accounting professionals on the situation. The Team was also given a tour to ensure that they understood the full process. All areas that could be outsourced were identified by the Team.

Based on the Study the following Processes were Outsourced

The new site's complete material accounting activities. Castings and components required for machining and assembly of Gear Boxes are received. Physical material verification and reporting of any discrepancies to the main plant. Material is issued to production based on the daily production plan. Gearboxes built at Unit Point 2 are dispatched to the main facility according to daily timetables. Maintaining data for Excise authorities, including the filing of monthly returns. Constantly updating management on all transactions at Unit point 2.

Results and Benefits

Manufacturing was a primary activity for the company, so it could focus on it. At Unit 2, the company was able to eradicate its separate store and excise department. The company was constantly updated on material use, including production waste at Unit Point 2. Any material differences were recognised, communicated, and examined as soon as possible. The company attained important savings in Unit Point 2 staff costs, which were greater than professional fees.

Case Study 4: Travel Agent Masterclass


In the travel industry, providing exceptional customer service and expertise is crucial for travel agents to thrive in a competitive market. This case study examines the implementation of a Travel Agent Masterclass by a leading travel agency, TravelWorld.


TravelWorld is a renowned travel agency that offers a wide range of travel services, including flight bookings, hotel accommodations, vacation packages, and destination recommendations. Recognising the importance of continuous professional development for its travel agents, TravelWorld designed a comprehensive Travel Agent Masterclass to enhance their knowledge, skills, and customer service capabilities.

  • Training Needs Assessment: TravelWorld conducted a thorough needs assessment to identify the specific training requirements of its travel agents. This involved analysing customer feedback, reviewing industry trends, and consulting with travel agents themselves to identify knowledge gaps and areas for improvement.
  • Training Design: Based on the needs assessment, TravelWorld designed a comprehensive Travel Agent Masterclass curriculum that covered various aspects of the travel industry. The curriculum included destination knowledge, product training, customer service skills, sales techniques, and emerging industry trends.
  • Expert Trainers and Resource Materials: TravelWorld engaged industry experts and experienced travel professionals as trainers for the masterclass. Trainers shared their insights, real-life experiences, and expertise with the travel agents. Additionally, TravelWorld provided resource materials, including training manuals, online resources, and access to industry publications.
  • Hands-on Training:To provide practical exposure and improve customer service skills, TravelWorld organised hands-on training sessions. These sessions simulated customer interactions, allowing travel agents to practice effective communication, problem-solving, and conflict resolution techniques.
  • Familiarisation Trips: TravelWorld organised familiarisation trips for its travel agents to popular destinations. These trips allowed travel agents to experience firsthand the destinations they would be promoting to customers. They gained practical knowledge about local attractions, accommodation options, and unique selling points of various destinations.
  • Ongoing Learning and Support: TravelWorld emphasised the importance of continuous learning and support. The company provided regular updates on industry trends, organised webinars and workshops on emerging destinations and travel technologies, and encouraged travel agents to participate in industry conferences and trade shows.
  • Outcomes and Benefits:
    1. Enhanced Product Knowledge: The Travel Agent Masterclass significantly enhanced the product knowledge of TravelWorld's travel agents. They gained in-depth knowledge about destinations, airlines, hotels, and travel products, enabling them to provide accurate and comprehensive information to customers.
    2. Improved Customer Service: The masterclass equipped travel agents with customer service skills to deliver exceptional service to clients. They became adept at active listening, understanding customer needs, and offering personalised recommendations, resulting in higher customer satisfaction and loyalty.
    3. Stay Updated with Industry Trends:By regularly updating travel agents on industry trends, TravelWorld ensured that its agents stayed ahead of the curve. This allowed them to provide customers with the latest travel information, recommend emerging destinations, and adapt to changing customer preferences.
    4. Customer-Centric Culture: The Travel Agent Masterclass fostered a customer-centric culture within TravelWorld. Travel agents became more attuned to customer needs, preferences, and feedback, resulting in tailored travel recommendations and personalised service.
    5. Competitive Advantage:The enhanced product knowledge and customer service skills provided TravelWorld with a competitive advantage in the travel industry. The company's travel agents were able to offer a superior level of expertise and service compared to competitors, attracting and retaining customers who valued the high- quality assistance provided by knowledgeable professionals.
    6. Increased Sales and Revenue: The Travel Agent Masterclass directly contributed to increased sales and revenue for TravelWorld. With enhanced product knowledge, improved customer service skills, and the ability to offer personalised recommendations, travel agents were able to upsell and cross-sell travel products and services, resulting in higher sales volumes and revenue generation.
    7. Professional Development and Retention: The masterclass program demonstrated TravelWorld's commitment to the professional development and growth of its travel agents. By investing in their skills and knowledge, TravelWorld fostered a sense of loyalty and engagement among its agents, leading to higher retention rates and a more motivated workforce.

    The Travel Agent Masterclass implemented by TravelWorld successfully enhanced the knowledge, skills, and customer service capabilities of its travel agents. By providing comprehensive training, ongoing support, and exposure to industry trends and destinations, TravelWorld created a customer-centric culture that set it apart in the travel industry.

    The masterclass program resulted in tangible benefits for TravelWorld, including increased customer satisfaction, higher sales volumes, and a competitive advantage in the market. By equipping travel agents with the necessary expertise and customer service skills, TravelWorld positioned itself as a trusted and reliable travel agency, attracting and retaining customers who valued personalised assistance and a high level of industry knowledge.

    The commitment to continuous learning and professional development demonstrated TravelWorld's dedication to staying at the forefront of the travel industry. By nurturing the skills and expertise of its travel agents, TravelWorld ensured its ability to adapt to evolving customer needs, industry trends, and technological advancements, thereby securing its position as a leading travel agency.

Case Study 5: New Online Banking Application’s Testing


A financial institution has developed a new online banking application to improve customer experience and attract new customers. The application allows customers to perform various transactions, such as checking their balance, transferring funds, and paying bills. The application has gone through a rigorous testing phase, but there are concerns about the decision-making logic used in the application.


The challenge faced by the test team is to ensure that the decision-making logic used in the application is correct and that the application behaves as expected under various scenarios. Some of the scenarios include handling invalid inputs, dealing with edge cases, and ensuring that the application meets the functional and non-functional requirements.

  • The solution to this challenge involves using a combination of techniques, such as boundary value analysis, equivalence partitioning, and decision table testing.
  • The test team will first identify the decision points in the application and create a decision table to represent the decision-making logic.
  • The decision table will include all possible inputs and outputs, and the conditions that determine the output.
  • The team will then use boundary value analysis and equivalence partitioning to identify the values that are most likely to cause errors and test them thoroughly.
  • The team will also test the application with edge cases and ensure that it meets all functional and non-functional requirements.
  1. In conclusion, decision testing is a critical aspect of software testing, and it is essential to ensure that the decision-making logic used in the application is correct.
  2. By using a combination of techniques, such as boundary value analysis, equivalence partitioning, and decision table testing, the test team can identify the values that are most likely to cause errors and test them thoroughly.
  3. With a thorough testing approach, the financial institution can be confident that the online banking application will provide a reliable and error-free experience to its customers.

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